Species differences in enantioselective 2-oxidations of RS-8359, a selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitor, and cinchona alkaloids by aldehyde oxidase

Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2006 Apr;27(3):133-9. doi: 10.1002/bdd.494.


The 2-oxidation activity on the pyrimidine ring of RS-8359, a MAO-A inhibitor, is the major metabolic pathway catalysed by aldehyde oxidase. This study investigated the species differences in the 2-oxidation activity by using liver cytosolic fractions from rats, mice, guinea-pigs, rabbits, dogs, monkeys and humans. The Vmax/Km value for the (S)-enantiomer of RS-8359 was extremely high in monkeys and humans, moderate in guinea-pigs, and low in rats and mice. Dogs were deficient in 2-oxidation activity. The (R)-enantiomer was only oxidized at a very low rate in guinea-pigs, monkeys and humans, and not oxidized in rats, mice and rabbits. Thus, marked species differences and enantioselectivity were obvious for the 2-oxidation of the (S)-enantiomer of RS-8359. The in vitro results were in good accordance with previously reported in vivo excretion data of the 2-keto metabolite and the non-detectable plasma concentrations of the (S)-enantiomer in monkeys and humans after administration of racemic RS-8359. Enantioselectivity was also observed for the oxidation of cinchona alkaloids catalysed by aldehyde oxidase. Among the four cinchona alkaloids studied, the oxidation activity of cinchonidine, which has no substituents at the 6-hydroxy group but bears (8S,9R)-configurations, was highest. As opposed to the (S)-enantiomer, an extremely high catalytic activity of cinchonidine was confirmed in rabbits, but not in monkeys or humans. Rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase was suggested to have characteristic properties around the active site.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cinchona Alkaloids / metabolism*
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Dogs
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Humans
  • Keto Acids / metabolism
  • Liver / cytology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors / metabolism*
  • Nitriles / chemistry
  • Nitriles / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Pyrimidines / chemistry
  • Pyrimidines / metabolism*
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Species Specificity
  • Stereoisomerism


  • Cinchona Alkaloids
  • Keto Acids
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrimidines
  • RS 8359
  • Aldehyde Oxidase