Proteomics is the measurement of one or more protein populations or proteomes, preferably in a quantitative manner. A protein population may be the set of proteins found in an organism, in a tissue or biofluid, in a cell, or in a subcellular compartment. A population also may be the set of proteins with a common characteristic, for example, those that interact with each other in molecular complexes, those involved in the same process such as signal transduction or cell cycle control, or those that share a common posttranslational modification such as phosphorylation or glycosylation. Proteomics experiments that involve mass spectrometry are divided into five categories: (1) protein identification, (2) protein quantitation or differential analysis, (3) protein-protein interactions, (4) post-translational modifications, and (5) structural proteomics. Each of these proteomics categories is reviewed. Examples are given for quantitative experiments involving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and for gel-free analysis using isotope-coded affinity tags. The impact of proteomics on biological research and on drug development is discussed. Challenges for further development in proteomics are presented, including sample preparation, sensitivity, dynamic range, and automation.