Association between protein intake and blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study

Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jan 9;166(1):79-87. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.1.79.


Background: Findings from epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between individuals' protein intake and their blood pressure.

Methods: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of 4680 persons, aged 40 to 59 years, from 4 countries. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intake based on 24-hour dietary recalls was recorded 4 times. Information on dietary supplements was noted. Two 24-hour urine samples were obtained per person.

Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between vegetable protein intake and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounders, blood pressure differences associated with higher vegetable protein intake of 2.8% kilocalories were -2.14 mm Hg systolic and -1.35 mm Hg diastolic (P<.001 for both); after further adjustment for height and weight, these differences were -1.11 mm Hg systolic (P<.01) and -0.71 mm Hg diastolic (P<.05). For animal protein intake, significant positive blood pressure differences did not persist after adjusting for height and weight. For total protein intake (which had a significant interaction with sex), there was no significant association with blood pressure in women, nor in men after adjusting for dietary confounders. There were significant differences in the amino acid content of the diets of persons with high vegetable and low animal protein intake vs the diets of persons with low vegetable and high animal protein intake.

Conclusions: Vegetable protein intake was inversely related to blood pressure. This finding is consistent with recommendations that a diet high in vegetable products be part of healthy lifestyle for prevention of high blood pressure and related diseases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amino Acids / urine
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Body Weights and Measures
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage*
  • Micronutrients / urine
  • Middle Aged
  • Plant Proteins, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sex Distribution
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urea / urine


  • Amino Acids
  • Biomarkers
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Micronutrients
  • Plant Proteins, Dietary
  • Urea