Prostate cancer is associated with obesity. However, the molecular basis of this association is not well known. Adiponectin is a major adipose cytokine that decreases in circulation in obesity and ameliorates obesity. Here, we identify adiponectin as a novel inhibitor in prostate cancer cell growth. Adiponectin occurs in non-proteolytic (full-length adiponectin: f-adiponectin) and proteolytic (globular adiponectin) forms in various oligomeric states (trimer, hexamer, and high molecular weight complex). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay demonstrates that f-adiponectin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth drastically at subphysiological concentrations. Furthermore, velocity sedimentation analysis shows that the high molecular weight complex of f-adiponectin is the inhibitory form. Moreover, f-adiponectin suppresses leptin- and/or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-stimulated, androgen-independent DU145 cell growth, and dihydrotestosterone-stimulated, androgen-dependent LNCaP-FGC cell growth. In addition, f-adiponectin enhances doxorubicin inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth. Therefore, f-adiponectin is a molecular mediator between prostate cancer and obesity, and may be therapeutic to prostate cancer.