Pneumocystis pneumonia--a retrospective study 1991-2001 in Gothenburg, Sweden

J Infect. 2006 Oct;53(4):260-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2005.06.014. Epub 2006 Jan 3.


Objectives: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a severe opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients, caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci. The incidence among HIV negative patients is considered to have increased during the last decade.

Methods: We collected data retrospectively from the cases with PCP diagnosed at Sahlgrenska University Hospital between January 1991 and December 2001.

Results: 118 episodes of PCP were registered in 108 patients. The most common underlying immunosuppressions were HIV and solid organ transplantation with 29 and 26 cases, respectively. The number of PCP cases did not increase during the study period. Out of the 118 episodes of PCP 89 (75%) were in patients not infected with HIV. No clusters were found among HIV positive patients. We found 5 smaller clusters among non-HIV patients. Among the cases with proven PCP, 17% were on prophylaxis: 30% of the HIV infected patients and 13% of the non-HIV patients.

Conclusions: The number of PCP cases is not increasing, 75% of the patients are HIV negative, Only 17% of the patients were on prophylaxis before the episode of PCP, indicating that not all patients at risk are identified.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumocystis carinii / isolation & purification
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / microbiology
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / prevention & control
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sweden / epidemiology


  • Antifungal Agents