Gene-for-gene-mediated recognition of nuclear-targeted AvrBs3-like bacterial effector proteins

J Plant Physiol. 2006 Feb;163(3):256-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.12.001. Epub 2006 Jan 5.


Plant disease resistance (R) genes mediate specific recognition of pathogens via perception of cognate avirulence (avr) gene products. The numerous highly similar AvrBs3-like proteins from the bacterial genus Xanthomonas provide together with their corresponding R proteins a unique biological resource to dissect the molecular basis of recognition specificity. A central question in this context is if R proteins that mediate recognition of structurally similar Avr proteins are themselves functionally similar or rather dissimilar. The recent isolation of rice xa5, rice Xa27 and tomato Bs4, R genes that collectively mediate recognition of avrBs3-like genes, provides a first clue to the molecular mechanisms that plants employ to detect AvrBs3-like proteins. Their initial characterization suggests that these R proteins are structurally and functionally surprisingly diverge. This review summarizes the current knowledge on R-protein-mediated recognition of AvrBs3-like proteins and provides working models on how recognition is achieved at the molecular level.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Plants / genetics
  • Plants / microbiology*
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid
  • Virulence
  • Xanthomonas / genetics
  • Xanthomonas / pathogenicity*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Plant Proteins