Efficient systemic and mucosal responses against the HIV-1 Tat protein by prime/boost vaccination using the lipopeptide MALP-2 as adjuvant

Vaccine. 2006 Mar 15;24(12):2049-56. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.025. Epub 2005 Nov 28.


A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the induction of mucosal immune responses able to stop or reduce viral infection directly at the portal of entry. We established a heterologous prime/boost vaccination protocol based on intradermal priming with the HIV-1 Tat protein and intranasal boosting with the Tat protein co-administered with the mucosal adjuvant MALP-2. Strong Tat-specific humoral responses were elicited in vaccinated mice at both systemic and mucosal levels. The cellular responses were characterized by a Th1 dominant helper pattern. The heterologous prime/boost regimen was also able to induce Tat-specific CTL, which were absent in animals receiving the homologous prime boost scheme. Thus, the heterologous prime/boost protocol was the only regimen able to evoke both CTL and sIgA responses. This suggests that a similar approach can be exploited to develop multi-component vaccines against HIV-1 infections able to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • AIDS Vaccines / immunology
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Animals
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Gene Products, tat / administration & dosage
  • Gene Products, tat / immunology
  • HIV Antibodies / biosynthesis*
  • HIV Antibodies / blood
  • HIV-1 / chemistry*
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • Immunity, Mucosal / immunology*
  • Lipopeptides
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Oligopeptides / administration & dosage
  • Oligopeptides / immunology*
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • AIDS Vaccines
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Gene Products, tat
  • HIV Antibodies
  • Lipopeptides
  • Oligopeptides
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat vaccine
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • macrophage stimulatory lipopeptide 2