Risk of prostate cancer on first re-biopsy within 1 year following a diagnosis of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is related to the number of cores sampled

J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):121-4. doi: 10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00064-9.


Purpose: We determined the influence of the extent of needle biopsy sampling on the detection rate of cancer on first biopsy within 1 year following a diagnosis of HGPIN.

Materials and methods: We identified 791 patients with HGPIN on the initial biopsy who had a followup biopsy within 1 year of their diagnosis. The mean interval from diagnosis of HGPIN to re-biopsy was 4.6 months. In the initial biopsy with HGPIN, 323 men had 8 or more cores (median 10, range 8 to 26) and 332 men had 6 core biopsies.

Results: In the 6 core initial sampling group, the risk of cancer on re-biopsy was 20.8% compared to only 13.3% following an initial 8 core or more sampling (p = 0.011). With 6 core biopsies for both the initial and re-biopsy the risk of cancer was 14.1% (group 1). With an initial 6 core biopsy and 8 core or more biopsy on followup, the risk of cancer was 31.9% (group 2). With 8 core or more biopsy sampling for both initial and repeat biopsies, the risk for cancer was 14.6% (group 3). The differences between groups 1 and 3 as compared to group 2 were statistically significant (p = 0.001 and p <0.0001, respectively).

Conclusions: With relatively poor sampling (6 cores) on the initial biopsy, associated cancers are missed resulting in only HGPIN on the initial biopsy, and with relatively poor sampling on re-biopsy there is also a relatively low risk of finding cancer on re-biopsy (group 1). With poor sampling on the initial biopsy and better sampling on re-biopsy, some of these initially missed cancers are detected on re-biopsy yielding a higher detection of cancer (group 2). Sampling more extensively on the initial biopsy detects many associated cancers, such that when only HGPIN is found they often represent isolated HGPIN. Therefore, re-biopsy even with good sampling does not detect many additional cancers (group 3). Our study demonstrates that the risk of cancer on biopsy within 1 year following a diagnosis of HGPIN (13.3%) is not that predictive of cancer on re-biopsy if good sampling (8 or more cores) is initially performed. For patients diagnosed with HGPIN on extended initial core sampling, a repeat biopsy within the first year is unnecessary in the absence of other clinical indicators of cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biopsy / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors