A mutation in the JH2 pseudokinase domain of the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2 V617F) has been described in chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). We screened 79 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and found five positive for JAK2 V617F (HEL, MB-02, MUTZ-8, SET-2, UKE-1), 4/5 with histories of MPD/MDS. While SET-2 expressed both mutant (mu) and wild-type (wt) JAK2, remaining positives carried homo-/hemizygous JAK2 mutations. Microsatellite analysis confirmed losses of heterozygosity (LOH) affecting the JAK2 region on chromosome 9p in MB-02, MUTZ-8 and UKE-1, but also in HEL, the only JAK2mu cell line lacking any reported MPD/MDS history. All five JAK2mu cell lines displayed cytogenetic hallmarks of MDS, namely losses of 5q or 7q, remarkably in 4/5 cases affecting both chromosomes. Our combined FISH and microsatellite analysis uncovered a novel mechanism to supplement mitotic recombination previously proposed to explain JAK2 LOH, namely chromosome deletion with/without selective JAK2mu amplification. Confirming the importance of the mutated JAK2 protein for growth and prevention of apoptosis, JAK2mu cell lines displayed higher sensitivities to JAK2 inhibition than JAK2wt cell lines. In summary, JAK2 V617F cell lines, derived from patients with history of MPD/MDS, represent novel research tools for elucidating the pathobiology of this JAK2 mutation.