Advanced glycation end product (AGE)-mediated modification of proteins is enhanced both in the kidneys and aortas of diabetic and uremic patients. However, AGE modification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has not yet been reported in these patients. We performed immunohistochemistry of kidneys and aortas using a monoclonal antibody against N(2)-carboxyethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (CEdG), a marker of AGE-linked DNA. A total of 20 kidneys and 20 aortas were obtained by autopsy. The kidney samples consisted of two groups: nondiabetic nonkidney disease (control) and diabetic nephropathy. The aorta samples consisted of four groups: nondiabetic nonkidney disease (control), diabetes, hemodialysis, and diabetic hemodialysis. In the kidneys CEdG was detected predominantly in the nuclei of epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells of the glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells, and tubular cells. The number of CEdG-positive cells in the glomeruli was significantly increased in diabetic nephropathy compared with control. In the aortic walls, CEdG was detected predominantly in the nuclei of macrophages and myofibroblasts. The number of CEdG-positive cells in the aorta was significantly increased in hemodialysis patients and diabetic hemodialysis patients compared with control. The highest number of CEdG-positive cells in the aorta was observed in diabetic hemodialysis patients. In conclusion, AGE-mediated modification of DNA is enhanced in the kidney of diabetic nephropathy and the aorta of uremic atherosclerosis, and may induce a loss of genetic integrity in these diseases.