Blood pressure (BP) measured only in the clinic substantially misclassifies hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of out-of-clinic recordings of BP in predicting end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death in patients with CKD is unknown. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 217 Veterans with CKD. BP was measured at home and in the clinic by 'routine' and standardized methods. Patients were followed over a median of 3.5 years to assess the end points of total mortality, ESRD or the composite outcome of ESRD or death. Home BP was 147.0+/-21.4/78.3+/-11.6 mmHg and clinic BPs were 155.2+/-25.6/84.7+/-14.2 mmHg by standardized method and 144.5+/-24.2/75.4+/-14.7 mmHg by the 'routine' method. The composite renal end point occurred in 75 patients (34.5%), death in 52 patients (24.0%), and ESRD in 36/178 patients (20.2%). One standard deviation (s.d.) increase in systolic BP increased the risk of renal end point by 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.60) for routine clinic measurement, by 1.69 (95% CI 1.32-2.17) for standardized clinic measurement and by 1.84 (95% CI 1.46-2.32) for home BP recording. One s.d. increase in home systolic BP increased the risk of ESRD by 1.74 (95% CI 1.04-2.93) when adjusted for standardized clinic systolic BP, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and other risk factors. In patients with CKD, BPs obtained at home are a stronger predictor of ESRD or death compared to BPs obtained in the clinic. Systolic home BP is an independent predictor for ESRD.