Epidemiological study on passive smoking among Japanese infants and smoking behavior of their respective parents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey

Prev Med. 2006 Mar;42(3):210-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.11.017. Epub 2006 Jan 10.


Background: Passive smoking is a well-known health hazard for infants. This study was conducted to: (1) estimate the prevalence of passive smoking among Japanese infants and (2) clarify the prevalence of indoor smoking and associating factors among parents having infants.

Methods: Subjects were all 53,575 infants born throughout Japan on January 10-17, 2001 or July 10-17, 2001. When the infants reached 6 months of age, the questionnaires were mailed to the homes. Family members answered questions that included information about the current smoking behavior of the parents.

Results: A total of 44,562 questionnaires (83.2%) were analyzed. The prevalence of smoking among the mothers and the fathers were 17.1% and 63.5%. The percentages of mothers and fathers who smoked indoors were 12.1% and 36.2%. The percentage of households where mothers and/or fathers smoked indoors was 37.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that young age, having a spouse who was a smoker, infants having many siblings, the mother not breast-feeding, and lower annual incomes had significantly higher odds ratios for both the mother's and the father's indoor smoking.

Conclusions: Passive smoking is common among Japanese infants. To protect Japanese infants from passive smoking, further public health measures must be taken.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Welfare*
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk-Taking*
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution