A monoclonal antibody, 115AD5, was raised against GABA coupled to bovine serum albumin. The monoclonal antibody 115AD5 also reacted with other GABA-protein conjugates. The specificity of the monoclonal antibody was corroborated by enzyme-linked immunoassay, dot-immunobinding experiments and immunostaining of rat cerebellum sections. The monoclonal antibody 115AD5 could successfully be applied on Vibratome and cryostat sections using either indirect immunofluorescence or peroxidase techniques. In rat cerebellar cortex the monoclonal antibody 115AD5 gave an intense immunoreaction in stellate cells, in Golgi neurons, and in basket cells and their processes around Purkinje cell bodies. Purkinje cell dendrites showed GABA immunoreactivity while the cell bodies were non-reactive or only weakly reactive. There was labelling in some nuclei of Purkinje cells. GABA immunoreactivity was also found in dot-like structures in the granular layer. A large population of sensory neurons in rat thoracic and lumbar spinal dorsal root ganglia presented an intense immunoreactivity for the monoclonal antibody 115AD5. Nerve bundles immunoreactive for GABA were also seen in these ganglia. In the trigeminal ganglion, a major population of sensory neurons and some of their processes presented immunoreactivity for GABA. In the sensory nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve, many neuronal cell bodies and some fibres were immunoreactive for GABA. Ligation of the vagus nerve caudal to the ganglion resulted in an increased GABA immunoreactivity in neuronal somata of the ganglion, as well as in nerve fibres on the ganglionic side of the ligature. The present results suggest that in the rat, a population of sensory neurons in thoracic and lumbar spinal dorsal root ganglia, as well as in the trigeminal and nodose ganglia contain GABA. The presence of GABA immunoreactivity in these neurons raises the possibility of a neurotransmitter or modulator role.