Neurotrophin signalling in health and disease

Clin Sci (Lond). 2006 Feb;110(2):167-73. doi: 10.1042/CS20050163.


Neurotrophins are a unique family of polypeptide growth factors that influence the proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. They are essential for the health and well-being of the nervous system. NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), NT-3 (neurotrophin-3) and NT-4 (neurotrophin-4) also mediate additional higher-order activities, such as learning, memory and behaviour, in addition to their established functions for cell survival. The effects of neurotrophins depend upon their levels of availability, their affinity of binding to transmembrane receptors and the downstream signalling cascades that are stimulated after receptor activation. Alterations in neurotrophin levels have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, as well as psychiatric disorders, including depression and substance abuse. Difficulties in administering trophic factors have led to the consideration of using small molecules, such as GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) ligands, which can participate in transactivation events. In this review, we consider the signalling pathways activated by neurotrophins in both health and disease states.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Physiological Phenomena*
  • Humans
  • Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism*
  • Nerve Growth Factors / therapeutic use
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / drug therapy
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism
  • Pain / metabolism
  • Receptor, trkA / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*


  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Receptor, trkA