Multiple myeloma (MM) remains largely incurable despite conventional and high-dose therapies, and novel biologically based treatment approaches are urgently required. Recent studies demonstrate that various growth factors including interleukin (IL)-6, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family proteins, Wnt, and Notch family members play an important role in MM pathogenesis, and mediate tumour cell proliferation, drug resistance and migration in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. Targeting growth factors, therefore, represents a promising therapeutic strategy in MM. Novel agents inhibiting growth factor signalling cascades can target ligands, receptors, and/or downstream signalling cascade proteins in MM cells and the BM microenvironment. Combinations of these novel agents with conventional therapies may not only enhance cytotoxicity, but also avoid drug resistance and thereby improve patient outcome in MM.