Loss of total arc of motion in collegiate baseball players

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;15(1):67-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2005.05.006.


Published studies on asymptomatic athletes show an increase in external rotation and decrease in internal rotation while maintaining the total arc of motion of the glenohumeral joint. The purpose of this study was to determine whether overhand athletes with shoulder pain maintained their total arc of motion. Sixty-seven college-level baseball players were examined. Internal rotation and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint, measured at 90 degrees of abduction, and total arc of shoulder motion were compared between dominant and nondominant extremities in athletes with and without shoulder pain. Dominant shoulders in the pain group had a mean arc of 136.2 degrees compared with 145.8 degrees in the nondominant group, for a side-to-side difference of 9.6 degrees. We demonstrate that college-level baseball players with shoulder pain have a significant decrease in total arc of shoulder motion and internal rotation compared with their nondominant shoulder and with pain-free athletes.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Baseball* / injuries
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Range of Motion, Articular*
  • Rotation
  • Shoulder Joint / physiopathology*
  • Shoulder Pain / physiopathology*