Correlation of invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and expression of the RAD21 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Virchows Arch. 2006 Apr;448(4):435-41. doi: 10.1007/s00428-005-0132-y. Epub 2006 Jan 14.


Although RAD21 is involved in the repair of double-strand breaks in DNA and is essential for mitotic growth, its role in cancer has been unclear. In this study, the relevance of RAD21 gene expression to the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma was clarified using laser microdissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using two different metastatic potential oral squamous cells [high-metastatic-potential squamous cell carcinoma cells (SAS-Ly) and low-metastatic-potential squamous cell carcinoma cells (SAS)], the relation of RAD21 gene expression to apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis was examined. The results showed that RAD21 gene expression was significantly decreased in oral squamous cell carcinoma when it expressed the INFbeta and INFgamma invasion patterns in comparison with the INFalpha invasion pattern (p<0.01). In addition, in comparison with SAS cells, SAS-Ly cells indicated tolerance to cell death induced by an apoptosis induction reagent, while the expression level of the RAD21 gene in SAS cells was increased by the apoptosis induction reagent. However, in SAS-Ly cells, the reagent induced no significant difference. Our findings indicate that the RAD21 gene was closely related to the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Dactinomycin / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Mouth Neoplasms / genetics
  • Mouth Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • RAD21 protein, human
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Dactinomycin
  • trichostatin A