Self-efficacy and emotional adjustment as precursors of smoking in early adolescence

Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40(12):1883-93. doi: 10.1080/10826080500259612.


The aim of this study was to examine the associations between self-efficacy, emotional adjustment, and smoking in a large sample of early adolescents cross-sectionally and short-term longitudinally. A prospective sample was used consisting of 1861 12-13-year-olds at 11 secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered at baseline and at a follow-up 6 months after the baseline assessment. Findings showed that higher depressive mood, low self-esteem, and low self-efficacy appeared to be related to enhanced levels of smoking in cross-sectional analyses. Short-term longitudinal analyses indicated that depressive mood and self-esteem were only related to the onset of smoking in girls. In three out of four cross-sectional analyses, self-efficacy x emotional adjustment interactions revealed that in particular adolescents with low levels of self-efficacy and low levels of emotional adjustment are likely to smoke.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adolescent
  • Affect*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / prevention & control
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Self Concept
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires