Effects of resistance and endurance exercise on bone mineral status of young women: a randomized exercise intervention trial

J Bone Miner Res. 1992 Jul;7(7):761-9. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.5650070706.


A substantial body of cross-sectional data and a smaller number of intervention trials generally justify optimism that regular physical activity benefits the skeleton. We conducted an 8 month controlled exercise trial in a group of healthy college women (mean age = 19.9 years) who were randomly assigned to a control group or to progressive training in jogging or weight lifting. We measured the following variables: bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (L2-4) and right proximal femur using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dynamic muscle strength using the 1-RM method, and endurance performance using the 1.5 mile walk/run field test. A total of 31 women completed the 8 month study. For women completing the study, compliance, defined as the percentage of workout sessions attended, was 97% for the runners (range 90-100%) and 92% (range 88-100%) for the weight trainers. Body weight increased by approximately 2 kg in all groups (p less than 0.05). Weight training was associated with significant increases (p less than 0.01) in muscle strength in all muscle groups. Improvement ranged from 10% for the deep back to 54% for the leg. No significant changes in strength scores were observed in the control or running groups. Aerobic performance improved only in the running group (16%, p less than 0.01). Lumbar BMD increased (p less than 0.05) in both runners (1.3 +/- 1.6%) and weight trainers (1.2 +/- 1.8%). These results did not differ from each other but were both significantly greater than results in control subjects, in whom bone mineral did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Weight
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Femur
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae
  • Muscles
  • Physical Endurance*