Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between dietary lutein and fat levels in broiler chicks hatched from lutein depleted (Experiment I) and repleted (Experiment II) eggs. In both experiments, a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments resulted in six dietary treatments (fat at 3% and 6% and lutein at 0, 25 and 50 mg/kg feed) that were fed for 23 days to 18 birds per treatment (in three replications). In Experiment I, the anti-dinitrophenyl-keyhole-lympet-hemocyanin (anti-DNP-KLM) serum antibody response at day 22 and macrophage phagocytotic index at day 17 did not differ among treatment groups (p > 0.05). The concavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin-P lymphocyte proliferation index at day 19 was greater in birds fed 50 mg of lutein and 3% fat than in birds fed all other diets (p < 0.05). Independent of the level of dietary fat, dietary lutein increased macrophage (day 23) nitrite production measured 46 h after in vitro stimulation with LPS (p < 0.05). Among the birds fed lutein at 25 or 50 mg/kg feed, birds fed 3% fat had higher LPS-induced nitrite production compared to the birds fed 6% fat after 46 (p = 0.014) or 70 h (p < 0.001). In Experiment II, macrophage nitrite production was measured at 54 h after LPS stimulation on days 11, 15, 19 and 23. An interaction between dietary lutein and fat levels on nitrite production was observed on day 19 (p = 0.012), where macrophages from birds fed 0 mg lutein and 3% fat had the highest nitrite production (p = 0.012). Macrophages from birds fed lutein at 25 and 50 mg/kg diet and 3% fat had higher (p = 0.012) nitrite production than birds fed 6% fat. Thus, in birds hatched from lutein deplete and replete eggs, modulation of macrophage nitrite production by lutein is dependent on the level of dietary fat.