Because of the frequency of ocular toxoplasmosis and its occurrence in multiple siblings in southern Brazil, a population-based household survey was performed to better understand the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease in this region. Of 1,042 individuals examined, 184 (17.7%) were deemed to have ocular toxoplasmosis on the basis of conservative assessment of ophthalmic findings. Of those with ocular toxoplasmosis, 183 (99.5%) had specific IgG antibodies, compared with only 140 of 181 age-matched control subjects (77.4%; P less than .001). The prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis was 0.9% in 1- to 8-year-olds, 4.3% in 9- to 12-year-olds, 14.3% in 13- to 16-year-olds, and 21.3% (95% confidence interval, 18.6% to 24.2%) in all individuals 13 years or older. The prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in this population was more than 30 times higher than previous estimates for the same condition elsewhere. The low prevalence in the young children we studied supplements previous data suggesting that, in this population, ocular toxoplasmosis is a sequela of postnatal rather than congenital infection.