Development and validation of the AmpFlSTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit: a male specific, single amplification 17 Y-STR multiplex system

J Forensic Sci. 2006 Jan;51(1):64-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2005.00016.x.


In the past 5 years, there has been a substantial increase in the use of Y-short tandem repeat loci (Y-STRs) in forensic laboratories, especially in cases where typing autosomal STRs has met with limited success. The AmpFlSTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit simultaneously amplifies 17 Y-STR loci including the loci in the "European minimal haplotype" (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393), the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) recommended Y-STR loci (DYS438 and DYS439), and the highly polymorphic loci DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, Y GATA H4, and DYS635 (formerly known as Y GATA C4). The Yfiler kit was validated according to the FBI/National Standards and SWGDAM guidelines. Our results showed that full profiles are attainable with low levels of male DNA (below 125 pg) and that under optimized conditions, no detectable cross-reactive products were obtained on human female DNA, bacteria, and commonly encountered animal species. Additionally, we demonstrated the ability to detect male specific profiles in admixed male and female blood samples at a ratio of 1:1000.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cats / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Y*
  • DNA Fingerprinting / methods*
  • DNA Fingerprinting / standards
  • DNA Primers
  • Dogs / genetics
  • Genetics, Population
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pan troglodytes / genetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Racial Groups / genetics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Species Specificity
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences*


  • DNA Primers