The RECON typology of stalking: reliability and validity based upon a large sample of North American stalkers

J Forensic Sci. 2006 Jan;51(1):147-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2005.00030.x.


A new typology of stalking, RECON (relationship and context-based), is proposed, based upon the prior relationship between the pursuer and the victim, and the context in which the stalking occurs. The static typology yields four groups: Intimate, Acquaintance, Public Figure, and Private Stranger. The typology was tested on a large (N = 1005) nonrandom sample of North American stalkers gathered from prosecutorial agencies, a large police department, an entertainment corporation security department, and the authors' files. Interrater reliability for group assignment was 0.95 (ICC). Discriminant validity (p < 0.01) was demonstrated on a variety of demographic, clinical, pursuit, threat, and violence characteristics among and between groups. Findings confirm and extend the work of other researchers, most notably the very high risk of threats and violence among prior sexually intimate stalkers, the very low risk of threats and violence among public figure (celebrity) stalkers, and the negative relationship between stalking violence and psychosis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Criminal Psychology*
  • Famous Persons
  • Female
  • Forensic Psychiatry*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • North America
  • Psychotic Disorders / psychology
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Social Behavior*
  • Violence