Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 1, mechanisms and risk factors

Am J Sports Med. 2006 Feb;34(2):299-311. doi: 10.1177/0363546505284183.


The mechanism underlying gender disparity in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk is likely multifactorial in nature. Several theories have been proposed to explain the mechanisms underlying the gender difference in anterior cruciate ligament injury rates. These theories include the intrinsic variables of anatomical, hormonal, neuromuscular, and biomechanical differences between genders and extrinsic variables. Identification of both extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with the anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism may provide direction for targeted prophylactic treatment to high-risk individuals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / anatomy & histology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Athletic Injuries / etiology*
  • Athletic Injuries / physiopathology
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Braces
  • Estrogens / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Estrogens