Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers

Urol Res. 2006 Feb;34(1):1-7. doi: 10.1007/s00240-005-0001-9. Epub 2006 Jan 20.


The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of the diet of the individual patient.

MeSH terms

  • Acids / urine*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Calcium / urine*
  • Citric Acid / urine
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxalates / urine
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid / urine
  • Urinary Calculi / diet therapy*
  • Urinary Calculi / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Calculi / urine


  • Acids
  • Oxalates
  • Uric Acid
  • Citric Acid
  • Calcium