Prevalence of enamel defects and MIH in non-fluoridated and fluoridated communities

Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2005 Dec;6(4):209-12.


Aim: This was to study the prevalence of enamel defects and molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in children attending Leeds Dental Institute (UK) and Westmead Dental Hospital, Sydney (Australia).

Methods: Prospective dental examinations were carried out on 25 children referred to two orthodontic departments. A questionnaire was completed to obtain background information and about previous fluoride (F) exposure followed by an oral examination. First permanent molars and permanent incisors were examined for presence, type and severity of enamel defects using the modified DDE screening index. Chi square tests were used to compare results.

Results: Data for 24 children in Sydney and 20 in Leeds presented with at least one enamel defect. Of 300 teeth examined, 155 in Sydney and 82 in Leeds had a defect (p < 0.005). Severity of enamel defects was higher in Sydney. The children presenting with any type of enamel defect in at least one incisor or molar were 21 in Sydney and 10 in Leeds. However, if only demarcated defects were considered, the number in Sydney dropped to 11 and in Leeds remained at 10.

Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of enamel defects in those children living in F Sydney than in non-F Leeds, but the prevalence of MIH was the same supporting the view that F is not associated with the aetiology of MIH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel / abnormalities*
  • England / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Fluoridation
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology
  • New South Wales / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tooth Demineralization / epidemiology*