In recent years, major progress has been made in the development, investigation and clinical application of novel immunosuppressive drug therapies to prevent acute rejection. Critical to the ultimate clinical application of new drug therapies is the ongoing performance of large multi-center clinical trials. However, there has been a paucity of infectious disease monitoring built into these protocols. Given that infectious complications are a major source of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients, the assessment of the magnitude of risk of infection associated with a given immunosuppressive strategy may be as important as the assessment of rejection. For the above reasons, screening, monitoring and reporting recommendations for common transplant-associated infections were developed for use in clinical trials evaluating immunosuppressive strategies. These recommendations have two major goals: (i) to provide clinically relevant definitions for tracking infectious complications occurring in participants in immunosuppressive trials and (ii) where appropriate, to recommend specific laboratory monitoring and surveillance methods.