Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection of the desert southwestern United States of particular concern for immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. The clinical course of coccidioidomycosis can be severe in immunosuppressed patients, with high rates of dissemination and mortality, and antifungal prophylaxis is routinely administered to high-risk patients. We sought to determine the impact of coccidioidomycosis on patients who received their renal transplant at our hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. A retrospective records review of the first 205 patients who received a renal transplant between June 1999 and December 2003 identified 6 patients (3%) who had contracted coccidioidomycosis after transplantation. All six cases occurred more than 6 months after transplantation. Two of these six patients had disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Two patients, one with pulmonary infection and one with disseminated infection, died. None of the six patients with coccidioidomycosis after transplantation had identified risk factors before transplantation. No high-risk patient who received targeted antifungal prophylaxis had a reactivation of coccidioidomycosis after transplantation. Treatment for acute rejection and induction with antithymocyte globulin did not appear to increase the risk of subsequent coccidioidomycosis.