The aim of this retrospective study of a cohort of 1787 consecutive kidney transplantations was to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of ureteral stenosis and the impact of ureteral stenosis on graft and patient survival. Between January 1990 and December 2002, 1787 renal transplantations were performed at our center. Only stenosis observed after the first month, were considered. Among the parameters studied were: donor age and serum creatinine before procurement; recipient age, cold ischemia time, delayed graft function (DGF), number of arteries and the presence of a double J stent. The follow-up parameters were the number and timing of acute rejection episodes, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, acute pyelonephritis, renal function and death. Ureteral stenosis occurred in 4.1% of patients and was correlated with donor age > 65 years (p = 0.001), kidneys with more than 2 arteries (p = 0.009) and DGF (p = 0.016). Ureteral stenosis did not affect 10-year patient and graft survival rates, which were respectively 90% and 64% for the stenosis group, 86% and 63% for the no-stenosis group (p = NS). These data suggest an important role for donor age, number of renal arteries and DGF for the occurrence of ureteral stenosis following renal transplantation.