The effects of resistance training on muscle area and strength in prepubescent age

Ann Physiol Anthropol. 1992 May;11(3):357-64. doi: 10.2114/ahs1983.11.357.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength training in prepubescent boys and girls on muscle strength and cross-sectional area of upper arm. Subjects were ninety-nine healthy elementary school children who belonged to 1st, 3rd and 5th grades and they were assigned to two groups of training (N = 52) and control (N = 47). Training group participated in strength training program for 12 weeks which consisted of maximum sustained isometric contraction of elbow flexion for ten sec, whereas control group did not participate in special training program in this period. In orger to determine the changes due to training, cross-sectional areas of the tissues in upper arm, such as muscle, fat and bone, were measured by the ultrasonic method. Maximum isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of elbow flexion and extension were measured by means of isokinetic cybex dynamometer. In order to assess the development of physiological maturity, TW2 method was used to estimate the skeletal age in each subject by taking the hand-wrist X-ray photograph. After 12-week training period, the whole cross-sectional areas increased in both training and control groups. This increment was due to significant increases in muscle and bone area in the training group and, on the other hand, due to the increase in fat area in the control. The increment of muscle area of training group was about 50% of that derived from the study on adults (Fukunaga, T., 1978). The increment in cross-sectional area of muscle with training was significantly correlated with the skeletal age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Arm / growth & development*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction / physiology*
  • Male
  • Muscle Development
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Physical Education and Training*