Resilon broadens the dimensions of endodontic adhesion by introducing the possibility of creating monoblocs between root canal filling materials and intraradicular dentin by using methacrylate-based sealers. The adhesive strength of Resilon to RealSeal, a methacrylate-based root canal sealer, was evaluated using a modified microshear bond testing design. Flat Resilon surfaces with different roughness were created for bonding to the sealer and compared to a composite control. The composite control exhibited mean shear strength 7.3 to 26.9 times higher than those of the Resilon groups. Shear strength differences among the Resilon groups of different surface roughness highlighted the contribution of micromechanical versus chemical coupling in sealer retention. Ultrastructural evidence of phase separation of polymeric components in Resilon suggested that the amount of dimethacrylate incorporated into this filled, thermoplastic composite may not yet be optimized for effective chemical coupling to methacrylate-based sealers.