Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for agronomic performance in a population of BC2F(3:5) introgression lines created from the cross of a Colombian large red-seeded commercial cultivar, ICA Cerinza, and a wild common bean accession, G24404. A total of 157 lines were evaluated for phenological traits, plant architecture, seed weight, yield and yield components in replicated trials in three environments in Colombia and genotyped with microsatellite, SCAR, and phaseolin markers that were used to create a genetic map that covered all 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome with markers spaced at an average distance of every 10.4 cM. Segregation distortion was most significant in regions orthologous for a seed coat color locus (R-C) on linkage group b08 and two domestication syndrome genes, one on linkage group b01 at the determinacy (fin) locus and the other on linkage group b02 at the seed-shattering (st) locus. Composite interval mapping analysis identified a total of 41 significant QTL for the eight traits measured of which five for seed weight, two for days to flowering, and one for yield were consistent across two or more environments. QTL were located on every linkage group with b06 showing the greatest number of independent loci. A total of 13 QTL for plant height, yield and yield components along with a single QTL for seed size showed positive alleles from the wild parent while the remaining QTL showed positive alleles from the cultivated parent. Some QTL co-localized with regions that had previously been described to be important for these traits. Compensation was observed between greater pod and seed production and smaller seed size and may have resulted from QTL for these traits being linked or pleiotropic. Although wild beans have been used before to transfer biotic stress resistance traits, this study is the first to attempt to simultaneously obtain a higher yield potential from wild beans and to analyze this trait with single-copy markers. The wild accession was notable for being from a unique center of diversity and for contributing positive alleles for yield and other traits to the introgression lines showing the potential that advanced backcrossing has in common bean improvement.