We prospectively studied the clinical, arthroscopic and histological results of collagen-covered autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI-C) in patients with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. The study included 37 patients who were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 4.08 years. Clinical results showed a mean improvement in the modified Cincinnati score from 46.1 to 68.4. Excellent and good clinical results were seen in 82.1% of those with juvenile-onset osteochondritis dissecans but in only 44.4% of those with adult-onset disease. Arthroscopy at one year revealed International Cartilage Repair Society grades of 1 or 2 in 21 of 24 patients (87.5%). Of 23 biopsies, 11 (47.8%) showed either a hyaline-like or a mixture of hyaline-like and fibrocartilage, 12 (52.2%) showed fibrocartilage. The age at the time of ACI-C determined the clinical outcome for juvenile-onset disease (p = 0.05), whereas the size of the defect was the major determinant of outcome in adult-onset disease (p = 0.01).