Background: Patients with Stage I Grade 1 endometrial carcinoma have an excellent prognosis and a 10-year survival rate of more than 90%. In every clinical series, however, a few patients in this group have recurrence and die of their disease.
Methods: The authors reviewed 80 patients with Stage I Grade 1 endometrial carcinoma treated at their institution from 1955-1980. Eight patients died of recurrent disease within 4 years of diagnosis. The authors studied multiple clinical and histopathologic features, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, DNA flow cytometric characteristics, and the expression of c-myb, H-ras, and neu oncogenes. Results were compared with those for a control group of 11 patients who survived more than 10 years free of disease.
Results: The authors identified the following four statistically significant adverse prognostic factors: myometrial invasion, vascular invasion, 8 or more mitoses per 10 high-power fields, and an absence of PR. Residual tumor, aneuploidy, and high proliferative activity were associated with a more aggressive behavior, although the relationship did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions: All patients who died of disease within 4 years had tumors with two or more of the significant adverse prognostic factors.