Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastric varices injection with cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding.
Methods: Twenty-four patients (15 males, 9 females) with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate injection. Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Followed up endoscopy was performed and repeat cyanoacrylate injection was given until gastric varices were obliterated.
Results: Seventeen patients achieved definite hemostasis. Of these, 14 patients had primary success after initial endoscopic therapy. Ten patients developed recurrent bleeding. Repeated cyanoacrylate injection stopped rebleeding in three patients. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed to control rebleeding in one patient which occurred after repeat endoscopic therapy. Six patients died (three from uncontrolled bleeding, two from sepsis, and one from mesenteric vein thrombosis). Minor complications occurred in 11 patients (six epigastric discomfort and five post injection ulcers). Cyanoacrylate embolism developed in two patients. One of these patients died from mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other had pulmonary embolism which resolved spontaneously. Advanced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were major risk factors for uncontrolled bleeding.
Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment for bleeding gastric varices with cyanoacrylate injection is effective for immediate hemostasis. Repeat cyanoacrylate injection has a lower success rate than the initial injection. Cyanoacrylate embolism is not a common serious complication.