Systemic hypertension in snorers with and without sleep apnea

Chest. 1992 Aug;102(2):367-71. doi: 10.1378/chest.102.2.367.


To investigate the impact of sleep-disordered breathing events on daytime hypertension (HT) in patients with increased upper airway resistance during sleep, we studied 191 male snorers aged 49.9 +/- 0.8 years. In 116 of them, an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) above 10--defined as the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)--was found; the other 75 subjects had an AHI lower than 10 and were classified as habitual snorers (HSN). Prevalence of HT was not different between OSA (56 of 116 = 48 percent) and HSN (33 of 75 = 44 percent) and there was also no difference in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures between the two groups. Hypertensive OSA patients had higher body mass index (BMI) than normotensive OSA subjects (31.4 +/- 0.7 vs 29.4 +/- 0.6; p less than 0.05), but there was no difference in age, AHI, and nocturnal oxygenation parameters. The same was true for the HSN group, with hypertensive subjects being more obese than normotensive subjects (BMI: 30 +/- 0.8 vs 27.3 +/- 0.8; p less than 0.05), but no difference in age and polysomnographic features. Discriminant analysis with HT as the classification variable and age, BMI, AHI, mean, and lowest nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation as independent variables, revealed an independent influence on HT only for BMI (F-prob = 0.001). Thus, our results stand against the hypothesis of a causal relationship between sleep-disordered breathing events and daytime hypertension. We conclude that the high prevalence of HT in male snorers is more directly linked to obesity than to sleep apnea, but an independent effect of snoring per se cannot be excluded.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Mass Index
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / etiology*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / complications*
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / physiopathology
  • Snoring / complications*
  • Snoring / physiopathology