Endocarditis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies: a case report and review of the literature

Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Apr;26(4):590-5. doi: 10.1007/s10067-005-0176-z. Epub 2006 Jan 27.


We report a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis associated with small vessel vasculitis and a strongly positive cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) test. It is important to recognize this cause of positive c-ANCA because infectious endocarditis may closely mimic the clinical manifestations of ANCA-associated vasculitides such as Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis. Furthermore, ANCA-associated vasculitis may result in noninfectious endocarditis, which may be confused with bacterial endocarditis. In this paper, we review reported cases of ANCA-positive bacterial endocarditis and compare them to the reported cases of ANCA-associated idiopathic vasculitis with endocardial compromise.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / blood*
  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / immunology
  • Aortic Valve / immunology
  • Aortic Valve / microbiology*
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial / complications
  • Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial / immunology*
  • Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial / therapy
  • Enterococcus faecalis / pathogenicity*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / complications
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / microbiology*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / surgery
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / immunology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic