ABCG5 and ABCG8 are two ATP-binding cassette half-transporters that belong to the G family members. They were identified as proteins that are mutated in a rare human disorder, sitosterolemia, and their identification led to the completion of the physiological pathways by which dietary cholesterol, as well as noncholesterol sterols, traffics in the mammalian body. These proteins are likely to function as heterodimers, and current evidence suggests that these proteins are responsible for the majority of sterol secretions into bile, thus may define the long sought-after biliary sterol transporters. This review will focus on some of the backgrounds of this physiology, the genetics and regulation of these genes, as well as our current understanding of their functions. This review will also highlight the current limitations in our knowledge gap.