Practical guidelines for monitoring and measuring compounds such as jasmonates, ketols, ketodi(tri)enes and hydroxy-fatty acids as well as detecting the presence of novel oxylipins are presented. Additionally, a protocol for the penetrant analysis of non-enzymatic lipid oxidation is described. Each of the methods, which employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, can be applied without specialist knowledge or recourse to the latest analytical instrumentation. Additional information on oxylipin quantification and novel protocols for preparing oxygen isotope-labelled internal standards are provided. Four developing areas of research are identified: (i) profiling of the unbound cellular pools of oxylipins; (ii) profiling of esterified oxylipins and/or monitoring of their release from parent lipids; (iii) monitoring of non-enzymatic lipid oxidation; (iv) analysis of unstable and reactive oxylipins. The methods and protocols presented herein are designed to give technical insights into the first three areas and to provide a platform from which to enter the fourth area.