Effect of dietary supplementation with beta-casein A1 or A2 on markers of disease development in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease

Br J Nutr. 2006 Jan;95(1):136-44. doi: 10.1079/bjn20051599.


The present study is the first to examine the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with beta-casein A1 promotes an increased risk relative to supplementation with beta-casein A2 in patients traditionally at high risk of developing CVD. The study was conducted in fifteen asymptomatic participants (six male; nine female) at high risk of developing CVD. A double-blind cross-over study design was used with a total duration of 24 weeks. Dietary intervention was a daily supplementation (25 g) of either casein A1 or A2 (for 12 weeks each). Surrogate measures of cardioprotection studied included the examination of vascular (endothelium and arterial) function, resting blood pressure, plasma lipids and biochemical markers of inflammation. Total plasma cholesterol levels were significantly lower following 12 weeks of both casein A1 and A2 interventions but the decrease was not different between intervention. Plasma insulin, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, protein C and S and von Willebrand factor levels were not different between the two casein supplements. Endothelium function, measured as a vascular response using venous occlusion plethysmography to intra-arterial infusions of the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine, were not different between the two casein interventions. Similarly, neither blood pressure nor measures of large artery stiffness were affected by differing the casein variant. We therefore conclude that there is no evidence from the present study that supplementation with casein A1 has any cardiovascular health disadvantage over consumption of casein A2.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aorta / physiology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Caseins / pharmacology*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dairy Products
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Forearm / blood supply
  • Forearm / physiology
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Protein C / analysis
  • Protein S / analysis
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Caseins
  • Protein C
  • Protein S
  • Homocysteine
  • Cholesterol