A new type of mitogenic factor (protein) was purified from the culture supernatant of a strain of Streptococcus pyogenes by SP-Sephadex C-25 column chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified factor, showing marked mitogenic activity in rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes, gave a single-band staining for protein on SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the purified mitogenic factor was determined to be 25,370, which was different from those calculated from reported amino acid sequences deduced from 4 different nucleotide sequences of 3 kinds of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (two SPEAs, SPEB and SPEC). The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region of the purified mitogenic factor was determined to be Gln-Thr-Gln-Val-Ser-Asn-Asp-Val-Val-Leu-Asn-Asp-Gly-Ala-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu- Asn-Glu - Ala-, which was also different from the reported N-terminal sequences deduced from the 4 different nucleotide sequences. These data indicate that this mitogenic factor is distinct from the already described streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.