We examined the neural correlates of spatial frequency (SF) processing through a gender and neuropsychological approach, using a recognition task of filtered (either in low spatial frequencies/LSF or high spatial frequencies/HSF) natural scene images. Experiment 1 provides evidence for hemispheric specialization in SF processing in men (the right hemisphere is predominantly involved in LSF analysis and the left in HSF analysis) but not in women. Experiment 2 aims to investigate the role of the right occipito-temporal cortex in LSF processing with a neurological female patient who had a focal lesion of this region due to an embolization of an arterioveinous malformation. This study was conducted 1 week before and 6 months after the surgical intervention. As expected, after the embolization, LSF scene recognition was more impaired than HSF scene recognition. These data support the hypothesis that the right occipito-temporal cortex might be preferentially specialized for LSF information processing and more generally suggest a hemispheric specialization in SF processing in females, although it is difficult to demonstrate in healthy women.