With increasing life expectancy in developed countries, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its socioeconomic impact are growing. Increasing knowledge of the mechanisms of AD facilitates the development of treatment strategies aimed at slowing down or preventing neuronal death. AD treatment trials using clinical outcome measures require long observation times and large patient samples. There is increasing evidence that neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers may provide information that may reduce sample sizes and observation periods. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative will help identify clinical, neuroimaging, and biomarker outcome measures that provide the highest power for measurement of longitudinal changes and for prediction of transitions.