Objective: To evaluate the dietary predictors for the markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods: We examined whether intakes of whole grains and dietary fiber were associated with inflammatory indicators among 902 diabetic women in the Nurses' Health Study.
Results: After adjustment for age, BMI, lifestyle, and dietary covariates, intakes of whole grains and bran were both associated with significantly decreasing trends of C-reactive protein (CRP) (P for trend = 0.03 and 0.007, respectively) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNF-R2) (P for trend = 0.017 and 0.06). High intake of cereal fiber was also inversely associated with the lower levels of CRP (P for trend = 0.03) and TNF-R2 (P for trend = 0.01). The concentrations of CRP and TNF-R2 were 18 and 8% lower in the highest quintile of cereal fiber as compared with the lowest quintile. Dietary glycemic index was positively associated with CRP (P for trend = 0.04) and TNF-R2 (P for trend = 0.0008) levels. The concentrations of CRP and TNF-R2 were 32 and 11% higher, respectively, in the highest quintile of dietary glycemic index as compared with the lowest quintile.
Conclusions: Our data indicate that whole grains and a low-glycemic index diet may reduce systemic inflammation among women with type 2 diabetes.