Salmonella typhimurium strains resistant to most beta-lactams, co-trimoxazole, tobramycin and gentamicin were isolated from patients in two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina, beginning in August 1990. The patients were suffering from meningitis, septicaemia or enteritis. Therapy including ampicillin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin failed. The strains produced a plasmidic (pMVP-4) extended broad-spectrum beta-lactamase which is more active against cefotaxime than against ceftazidime (Vmax for cefotaxime 350 times higher than for ceftazidime). This cefotaximase demonstrates similarity to the previously described CTX-ase-M-1 from Escherichia coli, but it is distinctly different from CTX-ase-M-1 by its isoelectric point (7.9 for CTX-ase-M-2 in comparison with 8.9 for CTX-ase-M-1) as well as in its lower susceptibility to the beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam, clavulanic acid, tazobactam and BRL 42715. Thus, the beta-lactamase produced by S. typhimurium strains from Argentina appears to represent a new member (CTX-ase-M-2) of a novel group of plasmidic extended broad-spectrum beta-lactamases designated as cefotaximases.