We report our findings on 51 patients with a familial breast and/or ovarian cancer risk who underwent prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (pBSO). Patients undergoing a pBSO between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2003, at the University Hospitals Leuven were reviewed retrospectively. Out of 51 patients, 37 (72.5%) underwent genetic testing, while the 14 others (27.5%) underwent pBSO on the sole basis of a positive family history only. BRCA1 mutation was found in 35% of the tested group, while 30% were BRCA2 carriers. Mean age at intervention was 45.3 years; 33 patients were premenopausal. In 44 patients (86%), the pBSO was performed laparoscopically, and in seven patients we decided laparotomy because of technical reasons. In four patients hysterectomy was performed. Histopathologically, the presence of epithelial dysplasia was observed in two patients (dysplasia of the fallopian tube in a BRCA2 patient; discrete focal atypia of tubal and ovarian epithelium in a patient with a negative BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation analysis). Peritoneal cytology specimens (n= 28) were all negative. Laparoscopic pBSO is well tolerated. Concomitant hysterectomy should be considered, given the observed fallopian tube dysplasia and the possibility of a tubal remnant after pBSO.