To evaluate the health benefits of Chinese quince and quince phenolics, their antioxidant properties and antiulcerative activity were investigated in comparison with apple phenolics as a reference. The strength of antioxidant activity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of these fruit phenolics varied according to different in vitro evaluation systems, whereas the antioxidative property of rat blood increased in all rats orally administered phenolics. Ferulic acid and isoferulic acid were detected as major metabolites in rats given apple phenolics, quince phenolics, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid standard. (-)-Epicatechin and its 3'-O-methyl ether could be detected in rats administered apple phenolics and (-)-epicatechin standard. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, pre-administration of Chinese quince and quince phenolics suppressed the occurrence of gastric lesions in rats, whereas apple phenolics seemed to promote ulceration. The trend of myeloperoxidase activity was similar to that of the ulcer index. The results showed that Chinese quince and quince phenolics might have health benefits by acting both in blood vessels and on the gastrointestinal tract.