Friction of conventional and self-ligating brackets using a 10 bracket model

Angle Orthod. 2005 Nov;75(6):1041-5. doi: 10.1043/0003-3219(2005)75[1041:FOCASB]2.0.CO;2.


The friction generated by various bracket-archwire combinations previously has been studied using in vitro testing models that included only one or three brackets. This study was performed using a specially designed apparatus that included 10 aligned brackets to compare the frictional resistance generated by conventional stainless steel brackets, self-ligating Damon SL II brackets and Time Plus brackets coupled with stainless steel, nickel-titanium and beta-titanium archwires. All brackets had a 0.022-inch slot, and five different sizes of orthodontic wire alloys used. Each bracket-archwire combination was tested 10 times, and each test was performed with a new bracket-wire sample. Time Plus self-ligating brackets generated significantly lower friction than both the Damon SL II self-ligating brackets and Victory brackets. However, the analysis of the various bracket-archwire combinations showed that Damon SL II brackets generated significantly lower friction than the other brackets when tested with round wires and significantly higher friction than Time Plus when tested with rectangular archwires. Beta-titanium archwires generated higher frictional resistances than the other archwires. All brackets showed higher frictional forces as the wire size increased. These findings suggest that the use of an in vitro testing model that includes 10 brackets can give additional interesting information about the frictional force of the various bracket-archwires combinations to the clinician and the research worker.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Dental Alloys / chemistry
  • Friction
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Nickel / chemistry
  • Orthodontic Brackets*
  • Orthodontic Wires*
  • Stainless Steel / chemistry
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry


  • Dental Alloys
  • beta titanium
  • titanium nickelide
  • Stainless Steel
  • Nickel
  • Titanium