We assessed the effects of Ramadan fasting on metabolic control, particularly change of HDL-cholesterol in 25 type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet or oral agents, with good metabolic control. Clinical and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated 3 weeks before Ramadan, in the fourth week of Ramadan and 3 weeks after Ramadan.There were no changes in body weight and blood pressure nor any metabolic complications. The mean plasma fasting glucose, serum fructosamin and haemoglobin A1c did not change. We found a negative relation between cholesterol intake during Ramadan and the change of HDL-cholesterol. When cholesterol intake was lower than 400 mg/day, plasma HDL-cholesterol increased by 13% at the end of Ramadan and by 23% 3 weeks after Ramadan.