Trace amine-associated receptor agonists: synthesis and evaluation of thyronamines and related analogues

J Med Chem. 2006 Feb 9;49(3):1101-12. doi: 10.1021/jm0505718.


We have previously shown that several thyronamines, decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormone, potently activate an orphan G protein-coupled receptor in vitro (TAAR1) and induced hypothermia in vivo on a rapid time scale [Scanlan, T. S.; Suchland, K. L.; Hart, M. E.; Chiellini, G.; Huang, Y.; Kruzich, P. J.; Frascarelli, S.; Crossley, D. A.; Bunzow, J. R.; Ronca-Testoni, S.; Lin, E. T.; Hatton, D.; Zucchi, R.; Grandy, D. K. 3-Iodothyronamine is an endogenous and rapid-acting derivative of thyroid hormone. Nat. Med. 2004, 10 (6), 638-642]. Herein, we report the synthesis of these thyronamines. Additionally, a large number of thyroamine derivatives were synthesized in an effort to understand the molecular basis of TAAR1 activation and hypothermia induction. Several derivatives were found to potently activate both rTAAR1 and mTAAR1 in vitro (compounds 77, 85, 91, and 92). When administered to mice at a 50 mg/kg dose, these derivatives all induced significant hypothermia within 60 min and exhibited a hypothermic induction profile analogous to 3-iodothyronamine (1, T(1)AM) except 91, which proved to be more efficacious. On the basis of this result, a dose-dependent profile for 91 was generated and an ED(50) of 30 mumol/kg was calculated. Compound 91 proved to be more potent than T(1)AM for TAAR1 activation and exhibits increased potency and efficacy for hypothermia induction. These data further strengthen the pharmacological correlation linking TAAR1 activation by thyronamines and hypothermia induction in mice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Temperature / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclic AMP / biosynthesis
  • Humans
  • Hypothermia / chemically induced
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Rats
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / agonists*
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thyronines / chemical synthesis*
  • Thyronines / chemistry
  • Thyronines / pharmacology
  • Transfection


  • 3-iodothyronamine
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Thyronines
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Trace amine-associated receptor 1